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Glossary of Terms


The term ferroptosis is derived from the Greek word ptosis, meaning “a fall,” and ferrum, the Latin word for iron. It describes a form of regulated cell death in which iron appears to be a factor. Many lupus experts believe that ferroptosis may play an important role in lupus nephritis. Read More


Ligands are small molecules that transmit signals in between or within cells. They exert their effects by binding to cellular proteins called receptors. The ligand is like a baton, and the receptor is like the next runner in line. After binding to the ligand, the receptor can then send additional signals to other parts of […] Read More


The word pathology is derived from the Greek roots pathos, meaning “experience” or “suffering” and logia meaning “study of.” The word itself is commonly used in the broad sense of referring to the study of disease in general. Read More

Antioxidant Defenses

Antioxidant defenses are compounds that inhibit oxidation—oxidation that can trigger the production of free radicals. Free radical activity can cause irreparable damage to the cells of organisms. Antioxidants are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage — the common pathway for cancer, aging, and a variety of diseases like lupus. Read More

Free Radical Activity

Associated with human disease, free radicals are the natural by products of chemical processes, such as metabolism. Yet, free radicals are essential to the body’s ability to turn air and food into chemical energy. Crucial to the immune system, free radicals attack foreign invaders. The danger of free radical activity occurs when they provoke a […] Read More


Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of the enzyme CASPASE-1 involved in inflammation. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Source: Medical Dictionary Online Read More

Sialic acid

Sialic acids are a family of sugar molecules that are often attached to proteins or fat molecules throughout the body. Sialic acids play a role in many of the body’s functions, including brain activity, interactions between immune cells, and kidney function. Read More


The clinical study stopped before enrolling its first participant. Source: Read More

White Blood Cell

Any of several kinds of colorless or nearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate in the blood and lymph. Leukocytes comprise granulocytes and agranulocytes. Neutrophils, 55% to 70% of all leukocytes, are the most numerous phagocytic cells and are a primary effector cell in inflammation. Eosinophils, 1% to 3% of total leukocytes, destroy […] Read More


Vasculitis is a condition that involves inflammation in the blood vessels. The condition occurs if your immune system attacks your blood vessels by mistake. This may happen as the result of an infection, a medicine, or another disease or condition. Vasculitis can affect any of the body’s blood vessels. These include arteries, veins, and capillaries. […] Read More

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